Skip navigation. In the book, Dreger describes how many doctors and scientists treated human hermaphrodites from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. She states that during this time period, many physicians and scientists struggled to determine the nature sex, and to support a classification of sex as male or female, many physicians and scientists resorted to viewing a person's gonads for identification of his or her sex. Sophie V.
Sexual Conflict in Hermaphrodites
Sequential hermaphroditism called dichogamy in botany is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish , gastropods , and plants. Sequential hermaphroditism occurs when the individual changes its sex at some point in its life. In animals, the different types of change are male to female protandry , female to male protogyny ,  female to hermaphrodite protogynous hermaphroditism , and male to hermaphrodite protandrous hermaphroditism. Both protogynous and protandrous hermaphroditism allow the organism to switch between functional male and functional female. In plants, individual flowers are called dichogamous if their function has the two sexes separated in time, although the plant as a whole may have functionally male and functionally female flowers open at any one moment.
Hermaphrodites combine the male and female sex functions into a single individual, either sequentially or simultaneously. This simple fact means that they exhibit both similarities and differences in the way in which they experience, and respond to, sexual conflict compared to separate-sexed organisms. Here, we focus on clarifying how sexual conflict concepts can be adapted to apply to all anisogamous sexual systems and review unique or especially important aspects of sexual conflict in hermaphroditic animals. These include conflicts over the timing of sex change in sequential hermaphrodites, and in simultaneous hermaphrodites, over both sex roles and the postmating manipulation of the sperm recipient by the sperm donor.
Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.